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Incest

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Neptun
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Incest

Příspěvekod Neptun » 8.1.2016 22:00:10

Incest is a sexual activity between close relatives. Although it may include a voluntary sexual intercourse between adult persons, it uses to be combined with pedosexuality, mainly as an intercourse of father with underaged daughter. It may alternatively include child sexual activity between young siblings. This is why we will discuss this phenomenon in our Empire Pedonia.

Incest is and it was a widespread cultural taboo, both in present and in many past societies. However, there were some societies that preferred consanguineous marriages. While consaguineous - it means biological or genetic - relationship is forbidden in many cultures, others extend the incest taboo to relatives with no consanguinity such as step-siblings, adoptive siblings, and milk-siblings.

We will look at the biological (genetic) and cultural (social, religious, legal) circumstances and consequences of incest. We will also learn from inbreeding consequences in other animal species.
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Incest

Příspěvekod Neptun » 10.1.2016 16:53:03

We will start with the decription of incest in Bible, Old Testament, book Leviticus, chapter 18, 6. It says: "None of you shall approach any blood relative of his to uncover nakedness." Because all people are more or less related, it was necessary to limit this rule to certain close relatives. The content of the verses 7-23 is summarized in the following image that will be analysed later:

Legend:
1: The person concerned, man, who is addressed by the Bible and to which are the following persons related
2: Wife
3: Father
4: Mother
5: Stepmother
6: Former husband of stepmother
7: Former husband of mother
8: Aunt = sister of mother
9: Aunt = sister of father
A: Uncle = brother of father
B: Aunt = wife of the brother of father
C: Own sister
D: Own brother
E: Sister-in-law = wife of brother
F: Half-sister = daughter of mother
G: Former husband of ones own wife
H: Sister-in-law = sister of wife
I: Half-sister = daughter of father and stepmother
J: Stepsister = daughter of stepmother
K: Son
L: Daughter-in-law
M: Daughter
N: Stepdaughter
O: Husband of stepdaughter
P: Granddaughter
Q: Step-granddaughter
R: Any woman during the days of menstruation
S: Neighbor
T: Wife of neighbor
U: Any man
V: Animal
Yellow mark means marriage. Black arrows connect biological parents and their children (in different levels) and biological (own) siblings (horizontally in one level).
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Incest

Příspěvekod Neptun » 1.5.2016 19:05:42

Leviticus

Symbols of persons in the diagram above that are mentioned in the Old Testament taboos are present in the citations from Bible below, in square brackets.

Leviticus 18, 6: None of you shall approach any blood relative of his to uncover nakedness. I am the Lord.
General interdict. Anyway, Jews needed to have clear rules in their books. So that the text continues with specific family relationships.
7: You shall not uncover the nakedness of your father [3], that is, the nakedness of your mother [4]. She is your mother, you are not to uncover her nakedness!
One rule is stated twice, by two sentences, for sure. Probably to say that such behaviour would be bad for the father and for the mother as well.
8:You shall not uncover the nakedness of your father’s wife [5]. It is your father’s nakedness!
The book of Leviticus was written in the time when polygamy was common in well-situated Jews. Other common cases were when one of the partners died early and the survived partner married again.
9:The nakedness of your sister, either your father’s daughter [I] or your mother’s daughter [F], whether born at home [C] or born outside [probably F,I], their nakedness you shall not uncover!
The rules differentiate between own biological sister and half-sister of two types, but incest is forbidden with both (all three).
10:The nakedness of your son’s daughter [P] or your daughter’s daughter [not drawn, the same level as P], their nakedness you shall not uncover; for their nakedness is yours!
Clear taboo, although somewhat surprising if we consider the shorter lifespan in that time. The patriarch often did not survive till the adulthood of his granddaughter or not in such physical power as todays seventy years old men. But why to consider [bold]adult[/bold] granddaughter?
11:The nakedness of father’s wife’s daughter [J] born to your father, she is your sister, you shall not uncover her nakedness!
This person should be considered as biologically not related. Sister in law, obtained by marriage to this family. This shows that Leviticus brings a mixture of various taboos, not a precise list of blood-related persons. The priest who wrote the rules preferred concise and clear text over perfectly correct one. We can understand this.
12:You shall not uncover the nakedness of your father’s sister [9]; she is your father’s blood relative.
The rules differentiate between several types of aunts. All such persons are forbidden, this is the first one.
13:You shall not uncover the nakedness of your mother’s sister [8], for she is your mother’s blood relative.
The second type of aunt. Forbidden.
14:You shall not uncover the nakedness of your father’s brother; you shall not approach his wife [B], she is your aunt.
The third type of aunt, now biologically not related. Even then she is forbidden. The relatedness in Leviticus is of course not biological but social, originating e.g. by marriage.
15: You shall not uncover the nakedness of your daughter-in-law [L]; she is your son’s wife, you shall not uncover her nakedness.
Again, this is biologically not related person, related through marriage.
16:You shall not uncover the nakedness of your brother’s wife [E]; it is your brother’s nakedness.
Biologically not related, forbidden.
17:You shall not uncover the nakedness of a woman and her daughter [N]. Not shall you take her son’s daughter or her daughter’s daughter [Q], to uncover her nakedness. They are blood relatives. It is lewdness.
Mentioned are daughter in law and granddaughter in law. This taboo would be quite up to date in present time with high prevalence of divorce.
18:And you shall not marry a women in addition to her sister [H] as a rival while she is alive, to uncover her nakedness.
When there were many siblings during the earlier times, this verse ruled out several women at once. The motivation of this rule is remarkable: it is not the honour of some man that would be harmed, but the emotion of woman. Great!
19: Also you shall not approach a woman to uncover her nakedness during her menstrual impurity. [R].
The priest that wrote this part of the Old Testament took it indiscriminately. When we have rules about sex, let us write there everything at once! Blood relationship or menstrual blood – it is all the same.
20: You shall not have intercourse with your neighbor’s wife [T], to be defiled with her.
Oops! Somewhat problematic rule. Who is our neighbour? If the rule considered any woman married to any Jew (other nations were not covered by the Testament), there would be no reason to name individually half of the persons mentioned above. Several taboos would be solved by this single one. Does this verse mean a wife of a men living in the neighbour house or our friend? When Jesus was asked „who is my neighbour?“ he did not answer but talked the parable about merciful Samaritan. That will not help us in our investigation of incest. I am keen to explain this rule as prohibition to deceive one’s friend.
21: You shall not give any of your offspring to offer them to Molech, nor shall you profane the name of your God; I am the LORD.
Fully outside sex and reality.
22: You shall not lie with a male [U] as one lies with a female; it is an abomination!
Improper relationships with certain women were carefully appointed until now. Homosexual relationship with men is prohibited generally.
23: Also you shall not have intercourse with any animal [V], to be defiled with it, nor shall any woman stand before an animal to mate with it; it is a perversion!
Prohibition of zoophilia (or zoosexuality), which was probably often practised by herdsmen in remote locations. But not only that. Here is a rule for women. The rules above were addressed to men. I do not think that it means that the Old Testament overlooks women, that it either refuses to treat them or prohibits any thier aberrant behaviour. This last verse shows that all the rules are formulated as one sided, from men to women to be concise, short, but they should be applied also in the opposite direction. In the case of animals, the reciprocity between men and women cannot apply, the rule must written separately to women.

By the way, the words “uncover the nakedness” surely must mean “to have sexual intercourse” not “look at naked body” as some religious people want to believe.
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Re: Incest

Příspěvekod Dejan » 29.8.2016 22:24:37

20: You shall not have intercourse with your neighbor’s wife [T], to be defiled with her.
Oops! Somewhat problematic rule. Who is our neighbour? If the rule considered any woman married to any Jew (other nations were not covered by the Testament), there would be no reason to name individually half of the persons mentioned above. Several taboos would be solved by this single one. Does this verse mean a wife of a men living in the neighbour house or our friend? When Jesus was asked „who is my neighbour?“ he did not answer but talked the parable about merciful Samaritan. That will not help us in our investigation of incest. I am keen to explain this rule as prohibition to deceive one’s friend.


Most probably, "neighbour" means here the member of a common patrilineal clan (lineage). Among the Semitic tribes, the groups of nomadic herders consisted of related men (through the real or even fictive common male ancestor) and their families. The social function of the taboo was to establish the alliances with unrelated clans through the wife exchange.
That's why the marriage between parallel cousins was prohibited, in contrast to the cross cousins.

* Parallel cousins: your father has a brother (your uncle). He has a daughter. She is your parallel cousin and is "taboo" for you.
Cross cousins: your father has a sister (your aunt). She maries outside of your clan, thus her daughter belongs to the partilineage of you auntie's husband. You are not only permitted to marry her; it is even recommended.

The problem here is to distinguish between incest and the prohibition of endogamy. Incest taboo has to do just with the sexual intercourse, whereas endogamy prohibition deals with the marriage.
However, both are cultural constructs. "Kin" is a social category, not the biological one. Your "biological" daughter and adoptive son are subject of the incest taboo although you may share 0 genes with this son.

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