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Human sexual behaviour

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Human sexual behaviour

Příspěvekod Neptun » 11.1.2016 15:51:55

Human sexual behaviour



I have reached abstracts of presentations from a special conference on animal and man behaviour. Some studies dealt with the sexuality of human beings. There is nothing about paedophilia only about other paraphilias and detailes on ordinary sexual behaviour. I will publish, step by step, abstracts of some of the studies reworded to understandable popular form.

The topic of the first study is

Sexual orientation
and dominance-submissivity in behaviour


(Hladký T. et al., Charles University)
This analysis is based on data collected on web page focused on BDSM (bondage discipline sadism masochism). This is, of course, not a representative population sample. There is a selection of people that like SM, from either of the attitudes. Positive feature is a large number of users, including hetero-, homo- and bisexuals. And the data analysis says the following conclusions about the relationship of dominance vs. submissivity to the orientation (hetero-, bi-, homosexuals):
Men: In heterosexual men paraphilic as BDSM, self-declared dominance was more common than submissivity (1277:803 men), while it was opposite in homosexual men (33:104). Even more submissive were bisexual men (76:331). This results support common sterotype about a normal man being a macho that beats his own wife, while gay is a pink boy with desire for true man.
Women: Heterosexual women were mostly submissive (44:270), homosexual women were very rare in the data (6:9). There were slightly more dominant bisexual women but still far from half of the sample (76:155). It seems that many women are satisfied with the role of a good housewife or a defenceless pussycat. Dominas are slightly more common in bisexual oriented women.
The ratio of homo- and heterosexual men within the users shows that BDSM is favourite not only in gays, but also in "normal" men.
Because the self-percieved dominance was scored on a multiple level scale, the researchers could show that dominant women are more strongly dominant than dominant men. If it appears at all, then it is pronounced! And also submissive men were more strongly submissive than submissive women. Good boys.
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Human sexual behaviour - study no.2

Příspěvekod Neptun » 22.1.2016 20:29:09

Non-verbal signals from men during the courtship and hormones


(Ježková a kol., UK)
Behavioural signals of dominance that demonstrate the capabilities of the man to take care of family use to be shown during courtship. Stronger dominant behaviour is correlated with higher levels of testosterone. Higher cortisol level appears during stress. The present study tried to discover what non-verbal communication elements are used by young men (16-18 years) during courtship display to an unknown girl (self-presentation video recording) and relationship of their occurrence to the level of the two mentioned hormones.
Friendly expressions were related to the total number of movements. Level of cortisol increased in these individuals. Dominant behaviour was related to both initial and final high level of testosterone, as expected. (Men do not only play they are kings, they have the role in their bodies.) Nervous behaviour, expressed as some secondary activity, was higher in men with low testosterone level. Looking down to the floor occurred in men with low levels of cortisol. (They did not have enough this stress hormone to energize them to higher activity.
It seems there are two separate alternative strategies of courtship in men: either dominant behaviour connected to high testosterone, or friendly behaviour connected to temporarily increased cortisol.
Girls, if you are not sure about the real strategy of your boyfriend, you have to get a sample of his saliva and run to the nearest laboratory.
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Human sexual behaviour - study no.3

Příspěvekod Neptun » 23.1.2016 12:49:14

Intersexual differences between the image of the ideal and real partners


(Kučerová and Havlíček, Charles University, Prague)
Studies comparing mental image of ideal partner with real one were usually based on personal vision what the ideal partner should be, recorded in the time when the respondent already had a real relationship. The ideal image then could be distorted by the satisfaction levels in the real relationship.
This actual study, on contrary, recorded vision of the ideal partner before forming a real relationship with a person met thanks to some of speed-dating agencies. If the pair lasted at least six months, the personality of the real partner was evaluated in the same categories as the ideal partner before. These categories were: mutual understanding, earning money, physical strength, extraversion, emotional stability and physical attractiveness. Average age of both men and women was 28 years.
Women gave significantly higher scores for the ideal partner than for the real one in all categories. They want to have everything best and they usually will not get it. Most of them lacked understanding, but they did not complain much about finances.
Men wished to have the ideal partner more emotional stable and with higher mutual understanding. They did not care about physical strength and financial support of their woman, and they were also satisfied with her physical look. If only she better understood him, and did not sometimes freak out.
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Human sexual behaviour - study no.4

Příspěvekod Neptun » 30.1.2016 21:31:25

Frequency of sexual intercourse


(Amy Muise, Toronto)
It is nowadays believed, among both men and many women, that sexual intercourse is simply healthy, and the more often, the better. Social psychologist Amy Muise from University of Toronto investigated how Americans feel themselves subjectively generally happy, and whether it is indirectly related to the frequency of sexual intercourse among couples surveyed. The investigation included more than 30 thousand people in three groups and three time periods.
There is a clear optimum: the happiest pairs make love once weekly. The study does not claim that this sexual frequency generates happiness. Maybe vice versa, these pairs have sex once weekly because they live in a satisfying relationship and enjoy a general well-being. In any case, this study rejects the pressure of the media, which often exaggerate the role of sex.
"We shifted from the culture teaching us that having sex is something dirty to the culture telling us to do it often otherwise we are flawed." said Rachel Hills, author of a recently published book Sexual myth: gap between our fantasies and reality.
The above cited study also shows almost similar level of interest by men and women. Age of partners and the duration of the relationship did not play any significant role. The study did not mention the difference in age of the two partners.
The pairs studied filled a comprehensive questionnaire so that other factors could be filtered out or related to the happiness. For example, sex was more important for the happy feelings than money.

Source of the Czech report: http://xman.idnes.cz/sex-jednou-tydne-prinese-stesti-daz-/xman-sex.aspx?c=A151122_153225_xman-sex_fro

Readers of the Czech internet newspapers idnes.cz might select an option how often they make love. The frequency of answers were: Less than once weekly: 1786, once weekly: 864, more than once weekly: 2011.

Czech psychologist Dr. Miroslav Plzák advised Czech couples to have regular sex twice weekly. However, that was in the communist era, when people were not so much occupied by their jobs, and also there was almost nothing else pleasant to do in Czechoslovakia in those times. Today, the life style of Czech people is more similar to the Americans.
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Human sexual behaviour - study no.5

Příspěvekod Neptun » 12.3.2016 18:41:46

Body odor, anticonception and divorce rate


People, like most vertebrates, posess a wide variety of so called MHC genes, forming a "Major Histocompatible Complex". These genes has probably two different functions. First, they facilitate recognition of cells of own body. Immune system thanks to a combination of many molecules on the cell surface recognizes whether there is some foreign cell invading the organism. Immune system would kill such a cell. This is why it is difficult to find donors of organs for transplantation. Half relatedness of genes between parent and progny is often insufficient. A special donor in which most MHC genes are alike must be found.
Much diverse MHC genes are beneficial for everyday life. More pathogenes and parasites are then recognized or parasites cannot well adapt (mask themselves), when each host is different from others and rich of recognition signals. This is why progeny of unrelated parents, with very different MHC, will be more healthy than progeny of two related people with similar set of MHC genes from either parent, and thus about half as diverse as in progeny of unrelated parents.
MHC genes in the same time affect the content of secretion of apocrine sweat glands and thus body odor of the man (in combination with bacteria on skin surface). We can really speak about smelling out the relatedness between partners. Women in normal situation like more the smell of man with different MHC that their own. This ability is adaptive; if the two partners marry, their child will have very diverse MHC and thus good imunity.
It was found that women taking hormonal anticonception, which causes a state similar to pregnancy, favour man with body odor corresponding to the same MHC as they have. Husband will stop to smell well during pregnancy and the woman will temporarily loose desire to make love with him.
A predicament appears when a woman that did not take hormonal anticonception will start to take it after some time of happy marriage crowned with several wanted children. She will not like the smell of her husband any more what can strengthen other disagreements between spouses and contribute to divorce.
Other predicament appears when a woman originally found a man during long time taking hormonal anticonception. When she stops to take it with the desire to have a baby the spouses are still in romantic love. When the sensing of odor of partner changes it is not immediatelly followed by disagreements. If she will not start to take the hormones again, the disagreement in smell sensing can strengthen other disagreements between spouses and contribute to divorce. In addition, these two partners gave birth to an imune deficient child.
Part of the high divorce rate in Europe may be thus attributed to the hormonal anticonception.
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Human sexual behaviour - study no.6

Příspěvekod Neptun » 1.5.2016 23:23:56

Dot probe testing of pedophilia


Psychologists use among others so called „dot-probe test“ to assess attention or attraction to certain type of images in specific group of people. Participants are asked to stare at a fixation cross on the center of the screen. Two stimuli, one of which is neutral and one of which is focal, or two contrasting focal images appear randomly on either side of the screen. An image of naked or partially clothed woman is combined with similar image of man to assess sexual orientation of the participant. After about a half second, a dot is presented in the location of one former stimulus.
The participant must indicate the location of this dot as quickly as possible, either via keyboard or response box. Latency is measured automatically by the computer. Heterosexual men were faster if the target appeared after the female stimulus, whereas women were equally quick to respond to targets after male or female stimuli. Nakedness does not attract females. (Snowden et al., 2016: ARCHIVES OF SEXUAL BEHAVIOR 45: 843-853.)
The technique may have promise in measuring sexual interest in other situations where participants may not be able, or may not be willing, to report upon their sexual interests (e.g., assessment of pedophilic interest). It is a simpler and cheaper alternative of penile pletysmograph. The participant reveals his wills unintentionally by the interest in specific pictures.
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Human sexual behaviour - study no.7

Příspěvekod Neptun » 9.5.2016 0:13:27

Diagnose of pedophilia by magnetic resonance


Previously, it was found that the sexual preference of adult men for children can be distinguished using responses of brain to sexual child and adult stimuli. The hemodynamic response of brain was measured using functional nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In the current study, 24 men known to be attracted to prepubescent boys and girls were exposed to images of faces only. Male and female, child and adult face images were randomly shown to the participant quietly lying in the NMR equipment. Thirty two teleiophiles (it is sexually attracted to adults) were measured as control.
Among all these 24 + 32 men, there were 4 misclassified: 3 false positives, which mean "normal" men (in fact homosexual) attracted to child faces more than to adult faces, and one homopedophile attracted more to adult man faces than to boys. Thus, the sensitivity of this method was 95 % and its specificity was 91%. This promissing result will allow to classify a pedophile with high certainty without showing child sexual explicit stimuli (child pornography) during the examination. Face images worked better than the whole body or genital images in the previous study. However, using NMR is much more expensive than any other available diagnostic method, while the accuracy is better than in phallometric assessment. It is not excluded that the response of non-admitting pedophile (that suppress his orientation) can be distorted. Individuals that are frequently exposed to children (parents, teachers) can be more frequently misclassified.
Interestingly, the differences in responses of homosexual and heterosexual pedophiles to girl and boy faces were unclear, non-specific, not allowing to diagnose the gender sexual preference. Somewhat better but still not satisfactory were the differences of responses of teleiophiles to man and woman face images.
The brain structure and the processing of preferred sexual stimuli are similar in pedophiles and teleiophiles.

Ponseti J, Granert O, Van Eimeren T, Jansen O, Wolff S, Beier K, Deuschl G, Huchzermeier C, Stirn A, Bosinski H, 2016: Assessing paedophilia based on the haemodynamic brain response to face images. WORLD JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY 17: 39-46.
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Human sexual behaviour - study no.8

Příspěvekod Neptun » 12.5.2016 22:02:08

Are you pleased with your girlfriend pregnancy?


Adolescent pregnancy remains a major U.S. public health problem. Little is known about pregnancy attitudes in U.S. adolescent males. The study objective was to identify factors associated with sexually active U.S. adolescent males who would be pleased with their female partner pregnancy. Among the 1,445 sexually active boys surveyed, 25% would be pleased with their girl pregnancy. These were usually being suspended from school, having sporadic health insurance, of higher age, and ever HIV tested. Sporadic insurance was associated with almost triple probability of being pleased, and being older and ever HIV tested with double probability. Higher educational attainment for both adolescent males and adolescent males’ fathers was associated with reduced probability. Targeting these adolescent males for more focused pregnancy-prevention counseling may prove useful in reducing adolescent pregnancy rates.

May Lau et al., 2016: Factors Associated With Being Pleased With a Female Partner Pregnancy Among Sexually Active U.S. Adolescent Males. American Journal of Men's Health.
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Human sexual behaviour - study no.9

Příspěvekod Neptun » 17.5.2016 20:02:30

People who watch porn more than once a week become more religious over time


Researchers say increased religiosity among regular watchers of porn could be compensation for guilty feelings.
Previous research has shown consistently that people who are more religious tend to watch pornography less often. New study by Samuel Perry has found that watching pornography more than once a week can cause american people to hold stronger religious beliefs than those who only occasionally watch x-rated videos. Data from more than 1,300 Americans were gathered over a six-year period. There is not only a simple correlation between the two behaviours. There is a development in the behaviour suggesting causality. People who never watched porn were the most pious and had the fewest doubts about their faith. Viewing pornography up to a few times a month made people less religious over time. But those who viewed pornography weekly or more in 2006 reported praying more often and attending worship services more often by 2012 compared to those who viewed pornography monthly or less.

There are several explanations of the relationship. Some people who watched pornography might have turned to religion for repentance, while in some cases compulsive behaviour towards both religious participation and pornography use might be the cause. Or those who use pornography at the highest frequencies are eventually able to separate religion and porn use in their minds to where it no longer causes a cognitive dissonance. They just do it daily, like brushing their teeth or exercising.

Dr Perry stressed that his research did not find that religion causes people to watch more porn. But there are such hypotheses. They are based on the frequency of porn use in differently religious USA states. Less fun in public life may be compensated in privacy.

Samuel L. Perry (2016): Does Viewing Pornography Diminish ReligiosityOver Time? Evidence From Two-Wave Panel Data, The Journal of Sex Research, DOI:10.1080/00224499.2016.1146203
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Human sexual behaviour - details of study no.9

Příspěvekod Neptun » 17.5.2016 23:18:31

Details of the study "People who watch porn more than once a week become more religious over time"

The non-linear relationship between the frequency of porn watching and the frequency of attendance of services is described by the following graph:
Obrázek
When the investigated people were divided to the categories Never view porn and Ever view porn, then those who had never seen porn were classified more religious, with less religious doubts, more frequent attendance of services and more frequent praying. The opposite trend becomes obvious only at frequences once a week and more of watching to porn. Because only 59 % of men and 20 % of women admitted viewing porn at all, the negative relationship between porn viewing and religiosity prevails when viewed as linear. There is no difference between genders in the level of religious doubts but men attend services and pray less frequently.
Generally, ever viewing porn increased from 2006 to 2012 only slightly, from 37 to 39 % of respondents. Viewing frequency in these people even slightly decreased, service attendance slightly increased.
There were 32 % of conservative protestants in the sample, 12 % mainline protestants, 25 % catholics, many other region members or unaffiliated. 57 % were married, all had average of 2.2 children, 29 % had at least bachelor degree. White race was represented by 70 %, 12 % were black, 13 % hispanic.
Religious doubts were positively correlated with the frequency of viewing porn (stronger left part of the graph above). Service attendance and praying were negatively correlated with porn. Service attendance was most strongly (negatively) correlated with porn viewing in Jewish religion, followed by unaffiliated, while week in mainline protestants. Black and Hispanic people showed positive correlation. There was low positive effect of age and marital status (older maried men and women both watched porn and attended churches). There were no effects of number of children and education. The effect of family income was low and negative.
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Human sexual behaviour - study no.10

Příspěvekod Neptun » 10.6.2016 16:58:31

Stability of pedophilia


In forensic research, there is a controversial discussion concerning the changeability or stability of pedophilia. Empirical data are sparse and are mostly based on samples of detected offenders. The present research examined self-reported arousal to sexual fantasies involving children in a clinical sample of pedo-/hebephiles. In Study 1, retrospective self-reports on the age of onset and duration of sexual interest in minors were examined. In Study 2, the stability and variability of self-reported arousal to sexual fantasies involving children were evaluated prospectively among non-prosecuted self-identifying pedo-/hebephilic men seeking professional help. 494 participants completed the intake assessment. Self-reported data were collected via questionnaire focusing on sexual arousal to fantasies during masturbation involving prepubescent and/or early pubescent minors. Subsequent assessments of sexual arousal were obtained after 2-3 years for 121 of the participants. The majority of subjects reported an early onset of their pedo-/hebephilic sexual arousal. The rank-order stability was medium to high. Over the investigated period, the majority of subjects showed no or only minimal decrease or increase of self-reported sexual arousal. These results suggested that sexual arousal to fantasies involving prepubescent and/or early pubescent children is stable. Furthermore, the results support the conceptualization of pedo-/hebephilia as a sexual age orientation in men.

Grundmann D, Krupp J, Scherner G, Amelung T, Beier KM, 2016: Stability of Self-Reported Arousal to Sexual Fantasies Involving Children in a Clinical Sample of Pedophiles and Hebephiles. ARCHIVES OF SEXUAL BEHAVIOR 45: 1153-1162.
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Human sexual behaviour - details of study no.10

Příspěvekod Neptun » 10.6.2016 17:16:38

The respondents of the second, prospective, study were men of average age 38 years. More than 40 % had relationship with adult woman, and more than 40 % had their own children. 84 % of them were interested in pre-pubescent children, 95 % in early pubescent children, 43 % in adults. 40 % reported interest only in (minor) females, 16 % only in (minor) males, 44 % in both sexes. In 60 % of respondents the arousal to prepubescent females occurred during puberty, in 40 % later (average 29 years). Arousal to prepubescent boys occurred during puberty in 72 % and later in 28 % of homosexual pedophiles. However, arousal to adult females occurred in most men (87 %) already during puberty, only in 13 % during adulthood. It means that some boys started to like women and then returned to fantasies with younger girls. Time stability of preferred age was somewhat higher in homosexual pedophiles.

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